Iran (Asia)

Iran ( persian ایران‎‎ Irān ), also known as Persia  officially known as the Islamic Republic of Iran

 Jomhuri ye Eslāmi ye Irānis a sovereign state in Western Asia.It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia, the Nagorno, and Azerbaijan; to the northeast by Turkmenistan; to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan; to the south by the Persian Golf and the Golf of Oman; to the north by the Caspian sea; and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world. With 78.4 million inhabitants, Iran is the world’s 17th-most-populous country. It is the only country with both a Caspian sea and an Indian ocean coastline. The country’s central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, make it of great geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country’s capital and largest city as well as its leading economic center

Iran is heir to one of the world’s oldest civilization, beginning with the formation of the Proto_Elamite and Elamite kingdoms in 3200–2800 BC. The area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant cultural and political power in the region. Iran reached its greatest geographic extent during the Achievement Empire  founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC, which at one time stretched from parts of Eastern Europe in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, but reemerged shortly after as the Parthian Empire. Under the  Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries

Iran is a major regional and middle power and its large reserves of fossil fuels  — which include the largest natural gas supply in the world and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves — exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. Iran’s rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world.Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. Its political system is based on the 1979 Constitution which combines elements of a parliamentary  democracy with theocracy  governed by  Islamic Jurists under the concept of supreme Leadership. A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims and Persia  the official language

After the 1979 Revolution

Revolution and History of the Islamic Republic Of Iran 1979

The 1979 Revolution, later known as the Islamic Revolution, began in January 1978 with the first major demonstrations against the Shah.After a year of strikes and demonstration paralyzing the country and its economy, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi fled the country and Ruhollah Khomeini returned from exile to Tehran in February 1979, forming a new government.After holding a referndum, in April 1979, Iran officially became an Islamic Repoblic.A second refrendomin December 1979 approved a theocratic constitution

The immediate nationwide uprisings against the new government began by the 1979 Kurdish rebellion with the Khuzestan uprising, along with the uprisings in Sistan and Baluchestan Province and other areas. Over the next several years, these uprisings were subdued in a violent manner by the nwe Islamic governments. The new government went about purging itself of the non-Islamist political opposition, as well as of those Islamist s who were not considered radical enough. Although both nationalists and Marxists had initially joined with Islamist s to overthrow the Shah, tens of thousands were executed by the Islamic government afterward

The Cultural Revolution began in 1980, with an initial closure of universities for three years, in order to perform an inspection and cleanup in the cultural policy of the education and training system.On September 22, 1980, the Iraqi army invaded the Iranian Khuzestan, and the Iran–Iraq War began. Although the forces of Saddam Hussein made several early advances, by mid 1982, the Iranian forces successfully managed to drive the Iraqi army back into Iraq. In July 1982, with Iraq thrown on the defensive, Iran took the decision to invade Iraq and conducted countless offensives in a bid to conquer Iraqi territory and capture cities, such as Basra. The war continued until 1988, when the Iraqi army defeated the Iranian forces inside Iraq and pushed the remaining Iranian troops back across the border. Subsequently, Khomeini accepted a truce mediated by the UN. The total Iranian casualties in the war were estimated to be 123,220–160,000 KIA, 60,711 MIA, and 11,000–16,000 civilians killed

Climate

Iran’s  climate  ranges from arid or semiarid , to subtropical along the Caspian coast and the northern forests. On the northern edge of the country (the Caspian coastal plain) temperatures rarely fall below freezing and the area remains humid for the rest of the year. Summer temperatures rarely exceed 29 °C (84.2 °F). Annual precipitation is 680 mm (26.8 in) in the eastern part of the plain and more than 1,700 mm (66.9 in) in the western part. United Nations Resident Coordinator for Iran Gary Lewis has said that “Water scarcity poses the most severe human security challenge in Iran today”

To the west, settlements in the Zagros basin experience lower temperatures, severe winters with below zero average daily temperatures and heavy snowfall. The eastern and central basins are arid, with less than 200 mm (7.9 in) of rain, and have occasional deserts.Average summer temperatures rarely exceed 38 °C (100.4 °F). The coastal plains of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in southern Iran have mild winters, and very humid and hot

 The annual precipitation ranges from 135 to 355 mm / 5.3 to 14.0 in summer 

Fauna

Wild life of IRAN

Asiatic cheetah , a critically endangered species living in  IRAN

The wildlife of Iran is composed of several animal species, including bears, gazelles, wild pigs, wolves, jackals, panthers, Eurasian lynx, and foxes. Other domestic animals of Iran include sheep, goats, cattle, horses, water buffaloes, donkeys, and camels. Pheasants, partridges, storks, eagles, and falcons are also native to the wildlife of Iran

One of the most famous members of the Iranian wildlife is the critically endangered Asiatic cheetah, also known as the Iranian cheetah, whose numbers were greatly reduced after the 1979 Revolution. The Persian leopard, which is the world’s largest leopard subspecies living primarily in northern Iran, is also listed as an endangered species. Iran lost all its Asiatic lions and the now extinct Caspian tigers by the earlier part of the 20th century

At least 74 species of Iranian wildlife are on the red list of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, a sign of serious threats against the country’s biodiversity. The Iranian Parliament has been showing disregard for wildlife by passing laws and regulations such as the act that lets the Ministry of Industries and Mines exploit mines without the involvement of the Department of Environment, and by approving large national development projects without demanding comprehensive study of their impact on wildlife habitats

Regions, provinces and cities

Iran is divided into five regions with thirty one provinces (ostān), each governed by an appointed governor (ostāndār). The provinces are divided into counties (shahrestān), and subdivided into districts (bakhsh) and sub-districts – dehestān

Iran has one of the highest urban growth rates in the world. From 1950 to 2002, the urban proportion of the population increased from 27% to 60%.[163] The United Nations predicts that by 2030, 80% of the population will be urban. Most internal migrants have settled near the cities of Tehran, Isfahan, Ahvaz, and Qom. The listed populations are from the 2006/07 (1385 AP) census

Tehran, with a population of around 8.1 million (2011 census), is the capital and largest city in Iran. It is an economical and cultural center in Iran, and is the hub of the country’s communication and transport network

The country’s second largest city, Mashhad, has a population of around 2.7 million (2011 census). It is the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province, and is a holy city in Shia Islam, as it is the site of the Imam Reza Shrine. About 15 to 20 million pilgrims visit the Shrine of Imam Reza every year

Isfahan, with a population of around 1.7 million (2011 census), is Iran’s third largest city and the capital of Isfahan Province. It was also a former capital of Iran, and contains a wide variety of historical sites; including the famous Image of the World Square, Siose Bridge, and the sites at the Armenian district of New Jolfa. It is also home to the 5th largest shopping mall in the world, namely Isfahan City Center

The fourth major city of Iran, Karaj, has a population of around 1.6 million (2011 census). It is the capital of Alborz Province, and is situated 20 km west of Tehran, at the foot of the Alborz mountains. It is a major industrial city in Iran, with large factories producing sugar, textiles, wire, and alcohol.

Tabriz, the capital of East Azerbaijan Province, is considered the second industrial city of Iran (after Tehran). With a population of around 1.4 million (2011 census), it is the fifth major city of Iran, which had been the second-largest until the late 1960s. It is one of the former capitals of Iran, the first capital of the Safavid Empire, and has also been proven extremely influential in the country’s recent history.

Shiraz, with a population of around 1.4 million (2011 census), is the sixth major city of Iran. It is the capital of Fars Province, and was also a former capital of Iran. The area was greatly influenced by the Babylonian civilization, and after the emergence of the ancient Persians, soon came to be known as Persis. Persians were present in the region since the 9th century BC, and became rulers of a large empire under the reign of the Achaemenid Dynasty in the 6th century BC. The ruins of Persepolis and Pasargadae, two of the four capitals of the Achievement Empire, are located around the modern-day city of Shiraz

 

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